app that is mostly filled with Pop, R&B, and other stuff I know nothing about. including Metal Injection's Top Of The Week, which is obviously updated all the time. be magically taken away to your iTunes player and head banging in no time. to the top charts with an album from , their new single is the longest. Figure Syrian Radio Song Contest (Arabic). . globalization of American popular culture; Saddam Hussein and Iraq, the dictator and Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, ); Stephen Blum and Amir Hassanpour, “'The By Radio Corporation of America [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
At the start of the rock era inthree such charts existed: This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported dating services in salem merchants surveyed Seksikuvat ilmaiset balls the country 20 to 50 positions. Most Played by Jockeys was Billboard's original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys and radio stations 20 to 25 positions. Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States 20 positions. This was one of the main outlets of measuring song popularity with the younger generation of music listeners, as many radio stations resisted adding rock and roll music to their playlists for many years. Although officially all three charts had equal "weight" in terms of their importance, Billboard Magazine considers Bildung Itunes top 100 pop singles us Best Sellers in Stores chart when referencing a song's performance prior to the creation of the Hot
Most striking is the energy balance for grain that Reichholf calculates. With the amount of calories a person needs, a family of ten would have needed 30 kg of wild grain per day and 10 tons per year. These would have had to be collected one spike of grain at a time.
Different from berries and fruits which can be eaten right away, next the nutritious seed has to be strenuously one by one broken out of its hard shell. Since it ripens only once per year, it would then have to be stored and protected against mould and mice.
All this makes it entirely unlikely that wild grain was a significant part of the diet even where it naturally occurred in abundance. Cultivating it requires cross-breeding over hundreds or thousands of generations until it becomes worth the effort. Again it is entirely unlikely that a nomad people who are starving would make the investment for a far-away future in order to do so p. Scarcity does not lead to innovation but to a stabilization and an increased differentiation in smaller ecological niches.
Natural selection in the sense of Darwin works that way. What is born out of necessity rarely persists when times get better.
In contrast, abundance, i. This is what happened when our ancestors left the forest and walked out onto the savanna in East-Africa where huge herds of huntable animals roamed.
The closer you look at each aspect of the conventional hypothesis, the less convincing it is. Thus, argues Reichholf, we have to look for another explanation, one that lies not in nature, but in culture, and one that starts not from scarcity but from abundance p.
Recent linguistic research dates the origin of language at roughly the same time p. This marks the transition from biological evolution to culture. Homo sapiens become the sign-and media-making animal. Those who acquire it later in life will easily be identified as outsiders. Children tend to devise secret languages that only they can understand, another indication that the function of difference must have been at least as important as that of unity.
It does not only allow to coordinate collective actions but also to hide one's intentions and to pass on knowledge selectively. In search for food, humans tried all sorts of plants and discovered that some — e. The specialist in these societies who accumulated this dangerous knowledge were the shamans, who served as healers and as guides to other dimensions.
Hop and cannabis are known to have been used early on. Berries and fruits spontaneously start to ferment, turning the sugar into alcohol. The same happens when grass seeds begin to sprout, turning starch into sugar, which yeast then transforms into beer.
While language was not essential for coordinating hunting and gathering, which the young ones could learn by imitation, the shaman could not have accumulated and conveyed his complex and secret knowledge to an apprentice without language p. In Africa and Australia, there was no significant use of drugs, and agriculture and livestock breeding did not develop. Where it did, drugs were part of the culture: They did not exist in the semi-arid regions of the Fertile Crescent.
What did occur there naturally are wild grasses with comparably large seeds, barley and the wild forms of what became wheat. As we have seen, the energy balance of gathering wild grain in order to make bread is prohibitive.
However, this is not the case for beer-making. The necessary amounts can be collected in a few hours or days. For this purpose also it is not necessary to peel the seeds out of the hard husks.
The spikes can be used as they are. And there is a simple means of speeding up the transformation of starch into sugar: There is repeated mention in the Gilgamesh-Epos from Mesopotamia which is the heartland of the Fertile Crescent.
A later image from Egypt shows people preparing what seems like flat breads while in fact they are making dough for beer. At this point the process has become very similar: One could bake the flat cake into bread or add more water so that it ferments into beer.
Reichholf is convinced: Barley is the oldest proven cultivated grain plant, starting 12, years ago. Bread only appeared 6, years later p. It lies at the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent on a mountain range and dates back at least 12, years, making it 6, years older than Stonehenge.
It consists of similar stone circles of T-shaped pillars up to five meters high, but unlike Stonehenge, these are richly ornamented with reliefs of animals and plants.
They show no indication of domestic animals or cultivated plants. Nor are there signs that these structures were used for habitation. One can easily imagine, says Reichholf, that roaming groups of hunters were attracted to it at certain times of the year. They came together to celebrate large cultic feasts.
These involved food, alcohol and other drugs, and, as we may assume from the memories recorded in the Bacchanalia, singing and dancing and other carnal pleasures as well. The purpose was to celebrate community and connectedness among people from different families and tribes. Just as in the case of children turning tasks into games, community was seen as an end in itself. Did they undertake the monumental effort to build this site in order to worship their gods?
Reichholf says, it is not necessary to assume a mythical dimension. Most people today don't need it to come together and celebrate. Reinforcing community is a strong purpose in itself. When drugs and music are used, trance, transcendence, the mythical emerges all by itself.
It might not have been the cause of celebrating together but its consequence. Settlement is a requirement for the whole seasonal cycle from sowing to harvest and for storing the grain in buildings. Livestock breeding started for the same reason. Geological and archeological findings show that huge herds of antelopes, gazelles and other animals migrated across the region at that time.
Meat was there in abundance in the Fertile Crescent. So why did our ancestors start to domesticate sheep and goats? Reichholf's hypothesis: One cannot supply fresh meat to a large number of people on a specific date if one depends on a successful hunt, the outcome of which is always somewhat unpredictable.
Therefore, people started to keep the young ones of animals they had hunted. The herds served as live meat-stock for the feasts. Again, this could not have happened in a situation of scarcity and famine when these animals, which also needed to be fed, would have been eaten to survive the day. Hunters became herders.
When these feasts became common practice, this set in motion a dynamic that necessitated settlement, and 10, years ago, the first city Jericho emerged. And with it came an explosion of proto-scientific knowledge of biology, genetics, pharmacology, astronomy and calendar-making, religion, and music — particularly important as non-verbal communication after the Babylonian confusion of languages — and, very likely during these large get-togethers also conflicts were settled sic!
Competition was not the driving force that made us human, as the ideology of the Homo economicus made us believe, but cooperation and mutualism by which we all profit from our joint actions. And it seems, each of us repeats these pre-historic experiences in early childhood. What drove our ancestors was not necessity, not scarcity, but the desire to celebrate community, to share each other in sex, drugs and rock 'n' roll.
These were ruled over by the gods, like Aphrodite, Eros and Dionysos, to name but those that media theoretician Friedrich Kittler , who recently passed away, was especially fond of. With monotheism the character of the gift changes. Rather than uselessly destroying goods in sacrifice they now should go to the poor and the children. The gifts turn into alms. The new doctrine of charity then went round the world with Christianity and Islam p. The oldest and most universal maxim of an ethic of reciprocity is the Golden Rule: One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.
Thus the basis for sharing shifts from an external to an internal and social authority. Socrates and Aristotle made the self the basis of ethics, the key to which is self-knowledge. A self-aware person will act completely within his capabilities. Such a person will naturally know what is right, do what is good and therefore be happy. The Knowledge Commons 37The quintessential ethics of sharing is the ethics of the commons.
In Roman law it was called res universitatis and included lands and other income-producing resources jointly owned by a community and public facilities like theatres and race-courses maintained by a town for its citizens. It retains the privileges of self-governance, the freedom of teaching and research and the right to grant academic degrees, and it constitutes the first form of a knowledge commons.
This is what Merton wrote: The substantive findings of science are a product of social collaboration and are assigned to the community. Nobody referring to the inversely proportional relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas had to ask Robert Boyle for permission or has to pay him royalties.
The same is true, if for different reasons, for the operating system of the Internet. Before divestiture of the telecommunications monopoly, Unix was shared freely with academia, and many researchers contributed to it. All mainframe makers licensed and extended it, in no time leading to dozens of mutually incompatible Unices.
Richard Stallman in single-handedly undertook to reverse-engineer Unix in what he called the GNU project. In addition, he hacked the copyright system to ensure that his Unix would remain free forever, free to share and build on. Strangely enough, it does not require attribution, but that is anyway common practice in free software projects.
The GPL looks like a copyright licence, and technically it is, but its meaning is a social contract that creates a commons. The Sharing Turn 43What is the range of practices and movements in which the paradigmatic shift manifests itself? Tomasello's simple classification of objects of sharing may serve us to group them: Even in the pre-Internet age, time-sharing operating systems introduced in the s enabled people connected to the same mainframe computer to share anything from academic papers to recipes and science-fiction commentary.
Still before the Internet proper, with the store-and-forward Usenet, these exchanges became global and their diversity exploded. The Internet then enabled the Open Access OA academic publishing movement as a response to the journal crisis s.
Free Software, as mentioned, was the first practice that brought this trend to the public's attention. Benkler conceptualized it as part of a much broader social-economic phenomenon: Participants work together as equals which does not preclude a meritocratic social differentiation , and they ensure the sustenance of their cooperation by releasing their common work under a free licence. Wikipedia is another prime example of this mode of production.
In the wake of OA followed the Open Educational Resources OER movement that cooperatively creates educational modules, text books all the way to free institutions of higher learning like the Capetown-based P2P University. CC Mixter, launched shortly after the release of the first Creative Commons licenses, may serve as an example of a music remixing community. While the Internet does not permit transmission of material goods, it does enable projects for free hardware design of anything from computer chips via musical instruments to cars.
When creative works are shared freely how can creators pay their rent? Thus they conclude, they have to be paid for in full before their initial publication. The Street Performer Protocol is their proposal for a system in which creators can solicit voluntary payments for a work which, once the desired total amount has been pledged, is released into the public domain. After a tenyear period of experimentation we now have a range of platforms like Kickstarter and Inkubato that enable the peer funding of music albums, movies, games and any other kind of creative work.
Another approach is taken by platforms that allow giving rewards to works that already have been freely published, like Flattr and Patronism. At first, observers assumed that only small amounts will end up in the virtual tip jar. Now we see that the amounts are getting larger and the time to collect them is getting shorter. In a recent example, the production company of a popular German telenovela proposed to turn it into a movie. It took them only one week to collect the required one million Euro Anon.
Peer funding also works without specialized intermediaries. Belsky et al. Thus people can legally get the same music without paying for it. And yet they do. And in the end, artists earn significantly more on these platforms than with mandatory fixed-price models like on iTunes. Aside from money, computing and communications resources were shared early on, whether it is CPU cycles like in the distributed search for extraterrestrial intelligence SETI home , wireless routers and Internet connections shared to build free wireless networks or running a TOR node to provide anonymous communications for all.
More recently we see that online sharing inspires offline sharing as well, in forms like couch surfing or car sharing. I want to highlight two elements that contribute to it.
First, the media-technological conditions for the possibility of sharing have become readily available. Reichholf's rule holds in the digital age: That comes from abundance. The PC brings an abundance of cheap computing power. The Internet that now extends to mobile devices brings cheap, abundant, global distribution for any kind of social network. And these, in turn, bring back the culture of cooperation and sharing that comes natural to us, now, compared to our Stone Age ancestors, on a new media-technological and global level.
Under neoliberalism, private enterprise and competition took priority. The welfare state was dismantled. Much of the public infrastructure telecommunications, electricity and water utilities etc. Similar laws have been introduced in several states of the USA Adams, In other areas, like education and public broadcasting in Europe, private sector competition was admitted.
Markets were deregulated. Where crises made the need for regulation obvious, particularly in the financial industry, it was successfully warded off. Neoliberalism thus led to an erosion of solidarity, on the individual, the collective as well as the normative level Stalder, Industry was particularly keen to bring the new opportunities for sharing that had manifested themselves in the digital revolution under its control.
Under the neoliberal paradigm even the social contract of copyright law was subject to privatization. Where before exceptions and limitations were a matter of public law, now companies are able to set their own policies implemented in and enforced by DRM technology.
A regular cease-and-desist industry has emerged, with technical service providers monitoring peer-to-peer networks and specialized law firms sending out chargeable cease-and-desist orders, in Germany on the scale of 3.
As with DRM, a public legal procedure to counter copyright infringement with its provision of due process has been nearly entirely privatized. Industry's most recent strategy in its escalating war on sharing is aimed at making Internet access and hosting providers proactively police their networks against infringements.
About the latter, the Levin-Coburn Report , p. Mohammed Bamyeh , professor of Sociology at Pittsburg University, observed the events on Cairo's Tahrir Square that came to a happy climax in February The old regime had collapsed, nearly all police stations had been burned to the ground.
An enormous mass that acted with unprecedented determination. People shared food and drink. They volunteered to regulate traffic and prevent looting of museums. People's committees took over security services in the neighbourhoods. Harassments of women stopped. Lost or stolen things were returned. And all this happened spontaneously, without leaders. The old regime asked for leaders, anyone to negotiate with, writes Bamyeh, but there were none.
The Arab Revolution — at least at this historic point in time — and, following its example, the Occupy movement are true peer-to-peer movements. Given the opportunity, people share.
The crisis of the recorded music industry and the structural failure of the copyright system make more and more artists like Love break away: We signed terrible deals with them because they controlled our access to the public.
But in a world of total connectivity, record companies lose that control It really is going to be a global village where a billion people have access to one artist and a billion people can leave a tip if they want to. It's a radical democratization. This failure makes people take things into their own hands, join hands and share information, services and resources with each other. Where a corrupt state had claimed it was needed to keep the order, people self-organise.
Where culture industry had claimed that free access to creative works and a fair payment of authors and artists are mutually exclusive, again people self-organise a technologybased social contract that enables both. And when the same industry tries to push for strengthened anti-sharing measures like SOPA and ACTA, the force of the resistance self-organised by the global networked citizens who do not want to let the potential of the Sharing Turn be crushed is astounding. During the year dictatorship of 20th century Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, regional music and dance were banned.
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